The Science Behind Our Products

For those of you that care about if/why a supplement is effective, you know that the advertising/promotion vultures will make outrageous claims to sell a product. Science can help sort the good data from the imagined.  

Garcinia cambogia is a great example of how hype can distort, or even ignore, truth.  You can’t go anywhere online without reading how Garcinia cambogia is a miracle for weight loss.  

Unfortunately, that isn’t what the Journal of the American Medical Association found when it published an article from Columbia University’s Department of Medicine, which concluded that Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.”

Our first formula was the weight loss supplement, MetaboAmp™. Please see below for links to scientific articles and summaries. We have also included the science behind Nervalax™, the other blend included with MetaboAmp™ that decreases stress and many of the negative effects associated with caffeine use, like nervousness and jitteriness.

Our newest formulas are ketogenic diet protectors. Both products reduce the amount of starch and sugar you digest, decrease the amount of glucose the body produces, decrease circulating glucose and enhance the processing of free fatty acids for energy production.

KetoGuardian™ is our daily us supplement and KetoSavior™ is our maximum strength supplement for heavier carbohydrate loaded meals. You work hard for your ketosis… protect it with KetoGuardian™ and KetoSavior™.

MetaboAmp™ Ingredients

Nervalax™ Ingredients

KetoGuardian™ Ingredients

KetoSavior™ Ingredients


Green Coffee Bean Extract

Green coffee bean extract comes from unroasted coffee beans, because roasting the beans destroys the active ingredient we want: chlorogenic acid.  Chlorogenic acid has some interesting qualities, although some are not well researched. 

That being said, after a literature review and weighing the costs against possible side effects, it was determined that green coffee bean extract would be a beneficial additive.  We chose to use decaffeinated green coffee bean extract because we wanted to control the overall caffeine levels in MetaboAmp™

The primary properties that we are interested in are decreased carbohydrate breakdown and absorption after eating and decreased cortisol (stress hormone causing visceral fat accumulation) levels*.  

Some studies have also shown lower blood sugar levels, but that is not relevant for this discussion*. 

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This article researches adding chlorogenic acid to instant coffee to see whether the weight loss results were from just coffee itself or if they would be stronger with chlorogenic acid.

There were two findings.  1) glucose absorption was 6.9% lower in the chlorogenic acid added coffee group vs. coffee alone. 2) over 12 weeks, the chlorogenic acid group lost 11.9 pounds vs. 3.7 pounds in the coffee alone group.

The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people.

This article was interested primarily in blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular disease, but it also showed a statistically significant decrease in BMI and abdominal fat in the green coffee bean group when compared to black coffee group. In addition, the green coffee bean group showed increased breakdown of cortisol into cortisone, which doesn’t have an effect on fat storage… less cortisol, less abdominal fat storage.

Consumption of green coffee reduces blood pressure and body composition by influencing 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in healthy individuals: a pilot crossover study using green and black coffee.

This article is interested in the speed of glucose absorption from the intestine and found just that.  Lowering the spike of glucose in the blood following meals increases how much fat your body stores and slowing the absorption means a lower, less dramatic spike.

Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine.

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Green Tea Extract

Green tea extract is well known for its effects on weight loss and its antioxidant effect*. Not only does green tea extract increase metabolism and fat burning, it has been shown to be even more effective when used in conjunction with exercise*.

However, even without exercise, it has been shown effective in multiple studies*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This article focused on visceral fat (the bad fat in your abdomen) loss. Not only was there significant decrease in visceral fat area, there was also a decrease in overall body weight and body fat. It should be noted that they were using both green tea extract and caffeine, but the caffeine amount was only 68.7 mg per day, so it is significantly less than what we have included anyway.

Effects of catechin-enriched green tea beverage on visceral fat loss in adults with a high proportion of visceral fat: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

This article observed a decrease in estimated intra-abdominal fat (IAF) area, decreases in waist circumference and body weight, total body fat and body fat %.

Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition.

This is a review of 11 different studies. The overall analysis showed catechins significantly decreased body weight and significantly maintained body weight after a period of weight loss.

The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis.

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Caffeine is one of the better known weight loss supplements.  Not only does it increase your energy levels because of its stimulant effect, it also directly effects metabolism by increasing the rate your body burns fat*. 

In fact, most of the lift in your metabolism is directly related to the fat burning effect*.  Caffeine also increases adrenaline levels, which increases fat burning as well*.  Overall, caffeine is a pretty potent fat burning addition. 

However, due to possible increases in heart rate and blood pressure, we have kept the total caffeine dose on the lower end of acceptable, partly to account for those of us who can’t tolerate caffeine and partially because we anticipate that some customers will continue to ingest caffeine through coffee or tea despite taking MetaboAmp™*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This article researched the effects on caffeine on the resting metabolic rate and showed an overall increase of 3-4% at doses as low as 100 mg.

Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and post-obese human volunteers.

This article investigated the effect of caffeine on lean and obese individuals. Although the effects were higher for individuals that were already lean, it still showed a 10% increase in lipid oxidation (fat burning) the day after caffeine ingestion in the obese group.

Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women.

This article investigated the effect of caffeine on lipid oxidation (fat burning) and energy expenditure. The goal was to see if the lipids were being burned or just broken down and recycled.  Lipid oxidation did increase with caffeine ingestion.

Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling?

This article investigated the effect of caffeine body temperature and energy expenditure. The increase in metabolic rate was 7% (plus or minus 4%). The real purpose of this study was to see if measuring skin temperatures would be an indicator of metabolic rate changes, and it failed there, but the insight into the actual metabolic rate change after caffeine intake was great.

Comparison of changes in energy expenditure and body temperatures after caffeine consumption.

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Sphaeranthus Indicus Flower Extract

Sphaeranthus indicus flower extract was one of the few ingredients that we chose with limited human studies available in the US. Sphaeranthus indicus is an Indian herb that has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries.

The herb has been shown to have effects on many different levels, but our focus will be on the effects on blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides (fat in the blood)*.  Sphaeranthus indicus significantly reduced the blood glucose level, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL – “bad” cholesterol) and significantly increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL – “good” cholesterol)*. 

Although this has implications well beyond that of weight loss, it is important to us because it can limit fat accumulation*. 

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This article reviewed the pharmacological properties of the herb and has all of the chemical and phyto-chemical information you could possibly want.

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

This article is a human study, which is why it is included here.  However, it was funded by the company the manufactures the supplement and it is a combination of two herbs.  We are still including it because both of those herbs are in our formula.  It should be noted though that our formula places more emphasis on the garcinia mangostana, so results of this study may not mirror the results we get from MetaboAmp™, although we feel the additional garcinia mangostana will increase its effectiveness due to its effects on insulin, blood glucose, and fat levels in the blood.

Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management.

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Garcinia Mangostana Rind Extract

The rind of Garcinia mangostana has been used traditionally to treat a variety of aliments. One vital mechanism is its ability to block the critical metabolic enzyme alpha-amylase that breaks down starches into sugar*.

Alpha-amylase blockers limit the spike in blood glucose levels that would normally follow a carbohydrate-rich meal*. Mangosteen extracts also inhibit enzymes involved in synthesizing fat molecules*.

Additionally, Garcinia mangostana has been shown to be a decrease blood glucose levels by possibly increasing the number of insulin producing β-cells*. It is this combination of blocking sugar uptake and blocking fat production that accounts in part for its weight loss properties*. There is a study that evaluates the efficacy of Garcinia mangostana in humans, which can be found here.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This study was designed to test if Garcinia mangostana could block the actions of alpha-amylase. Limiting the spike in blood glucose levels decreases the storage of energy as fat.

Assay-guided fractionation study of alpha-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana pericarp.

This study was to investigate whether Garcinia mangostana extract could inhibit the synthesis of fat from fatty acids.  By blocking fat production, Garcinia mangostana decreases the body’s ability to store excess energy as fat.

Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.

This study investigated the hypoglycemic effects of Garcinia mangostana. Not only did the study show a decrease in blood glucose, it also decreased triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL).

Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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Rhodiola Rosea Extract

One of the issues with almost all diet regimes is stress and fatigue. Rhodiola rosea has been shown to improve the symptoms of stress and increase the feelings of well-being while decreasing fatigue*.

Additionally, it increases the levels of serotonin in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps reduce stress-induced binge eating*.

As an added bonus for weight loss, one of the chemicals in Rhodiola Rosea also decreases insulin resistance and blood glucose levels as well as decreasing the amount of food eaten*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This trial evaluated the impact of a Rhodiola rosea extract on self-reported anxiety, stress, cognition, and other mood symptoms. Eighty mildly anxious people participated randomized into two groups.

The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms.

This study investigated the effect of Rhodiola rosea on stress and binge eating. It also abolished stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels.

Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating.

This study showed that the application of salidroside (one of the active chemicals in Rhodiola rosea) induces a significant decrease in food intake and a mild reduction in body weight. Considering that this isn’t the main reason we included it with MetaboAmp™, this is an added bonus.

Salidroside improves glucose homeostasis in obese mice by repressing inflammation in white adipose tissues and improving leptin sensitivity in hypothalamus.

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Although L-theanine has some benefits on its own, the main reason it was added to the formula is its interaction with caffeine.  L-theanine, a non-essential amino acid, when used in conjunction with caffeine, helps mitigate the negative affects of caffeine such as restlessness, irritability and “jitters”*.  

This allows caffeine intake without the all of the issues normally associated with it*.  However, if your doctor has told you to stop or limit your caffeine intake, L-theanine is not a solution.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This study wanted to see if, consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, i.e. that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses.

Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

This study tested combining L-theanine with caffeine, at levels and ratios equivalent to one to two cups of tea, to see if together they would eliminat the vasoconstrictive effect and behavioural effects of caffeine.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood.

In this study, the inhibiting action of theanine on the excitation by caffeine at the concentration regularly associated with drinking tea was investigated using electroencephalography (EEG) in rats.

Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat.

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White Mulberry Leaf Extract

1-deoxynojirimycin, or DNJ, is an active found in the leaves of the white mulberry tree.  White mulberry has been used for millennia in Traditional Chinese Medicine.  Its contribution to enhancing ketosis is through its ability to inhibit α-glucosidase, the group of chemicals the body releases to digest carbohydrates. 

Although this doesn’t stop their digestion completely, it slows the process down to the point where it minimizes the spike in glucose and the resulting increase in insulin*.  This is typically measured in what is called the “area under the curve” of each. 

Because digestion is slowed down, the blood glucose rise may last longer, even if it doesn’t go as high.  Basically, the AUC measures the total amount of glucose or insulin over a given time frame, which allows comparisons to be made about the impact of treatments. That is why the AUC is so important when it comes to determining how effective an α-glucosidase inhibitor is. 

DNJ shows a statistically significant decrease in the AUC for both glucose and insulin in adults with normal blood glucose levels*.

While white kidney bean extract inhibits the breakdown of starch into smaller sugars, DNJ inhibits the breakdown of the smaller sugars into glucose*.  That includes the breakdown of maltodextrin, which is found in many processed low-carb foods. 

In fact, one of the studies below focused specifically on maltodextrin.  This is important for enhancing ketosis because maltodextrin has an Glycemic Index of 85-105, so it is almost as bad as or worse than glucose itself (Glycemic Index of 100). 

In this particular study, 50 grams of maltodextrin was used which is much higher that the amount in most processed foods (taco seasoning packets, ranch dip, etc.), while the high-dose extract used in the study contained the same amount of DNJ as one serving of KetoGuardian™ (and KetoSavior™ has even more). 

Although maltodextrin should be avoided on ketogenic diets, DNJ can help decrease the impact of maltodextrin when eating processed foods can’t be avoided*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This was a human study to determine effective dose and found that a single oral dose significantly suppressed elevation of post-postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin after ingestion of sucrose.

Food-Grade Mulberry Powder Enriched with 1-Deoxynojirimycin Suppresses the Elevation of Postprandial Blood Glucose in Humans

This was another human trial, but this time with maltodextrose. Mulberry Leaf Extract significantly reduced total blood glucose rise as well as significantly reducing insulin rise.

Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

1-Deoxynojirimycin enhances the production of and circulating levels of adiponectin as well as up-regulating GLUT4, which enhances glucose uptake. Adiponectin decreases gluconeogenesis, increases glucose uptake and increases lipid breakdown for energy.

1-Deoxynojirimycin Isolated from a Bacillus subtilis Stimulates Adiponectin and GLUT4 Expressions in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Mulberry Leaf Extract strongly suppresses post postprandial hyperglycemia (glucose in blood) by inhibiting the activity of disaccharides in the small intestine.

Inhibitory Effects of Mulberry Leaf Extract on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normal Rats

Mulberry Leaf Extract inhibits digestion of sucrose, maltose and isomaltose (polysaccharides) in humans.

Inhibitory effects of extractives from leaves of Morus alba on human and rat small intestinal disaccharidase activity

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Malus domestica Extract

“An apple a day keeps the doctor away” is a well known quote in Western cultures.  Clinical observations throughout the last couple of centuries have shown apples offer many health benefits, but only in the last 150 years has that been actually studied. 

The main ingredient responsible for glucose related control has been identified as Phloridzin.  Phloridzin has been used as a pharmaceutical and tool for physiology research for over 150 years now. Phloridzin’s principal pharmacological action is to produce renal glycosuria (loss of glucose into the urine) and to block intestinal glucose absorption*. 

This is accomplished via Sodium Linked Glucose Transports 1 and 2 (or SLGT1 and SLGT2).  SLGT1 is responsible for transport of glucose through the intestine (glucose absorption) and SLGT2 is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys (which prevents losing glucose into the urine)*.  There is some functional overlap, but that is beyond the scope of this work.  

SLGT1 is of interest for enhancing ketosis by limiting the amount of glucose absorbed through the diet.  Whereas glucosidase inhibitors (like DNJ) limit the absorption of glucose by disabling the ability of the body to break sugars into smaller pieces (and eventually into glucose), SLGT1 inhibitors directly affect the ability to absorb glucose itself*. 

This directly impacts both the rate glucose enters the system by slowing/blocking absorption, as well as the height of the resulting insulin spike*.  Both of these decrease the glucose and insulin “area under the curve” resulting in lower postprandial blood glucose as well as less impact on ketosis*.

SLGT2 is of even greater interest for enhancing ketosis. As discussed earlier, SLGT2 is found primarily in the kidneys and is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose back into the circulation (which keeps it from being excreted into the urine)*. 

SLGT2 inhibitors stop this process from occurring leading to loss of glucose into the urine*.  This is all completely independent of insulin, which means that it can remove glucose from the system without the risk of causing low blood glucose as a result*.  

The inhibition of both of these transporters together make Phloridzin a powerful ketosis enhancer*.  Not only is there less glucose absorbed from the diet due to SLGT1 inhibition, but because of SLGT2 inhibition, the glucose already in the system is excreted in the urine instead of being reabsorbed into the blood*.  

Note of caution: increased urinary excretion of glucose can theoretically increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTI) by giving bacteria glucose to eat that is not normally in the urine.  Although theoretical, we feel this is something that should be watched for, especially in people who are prone to having UTIs.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This study found that apple extract reduced venous blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in humans. In addition to decreasing glucose absorption in the intestines, it was shown to modestly increase glucose loss in the urine, further decreasing blood glucose.

Inhibition of the intestinal sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by extracts and polyphenols from apple reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in mice and humans

This article is a review of phloridzin and its usage in research for the last 150 years. It also reviews how phloridzin causes loss of glucose through the kidneys and urine.

Phlorizin: a review

This was a human study which showed a reduction in post-prandial blood glucose.

Acute anti-hyperglycemic effects of an unripe apple preparation containing phlorizin in healthy volunteers: a preliminary study

This article discusses sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and how they can facilitate the development of ketosis.

Ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis in response to SGLT2 inhibitors: Basic mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives

Phloridzin inhibits both SGLT1 and SGLT2 and could be useful in post-prandial blood glucose management.

Phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipids metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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White Bean Extract

When people think of “Carb Blockers”, this is probably the supplement they are thinking about.  Extracts from the common bean were first researched as α-amylase inhibitors in the late 1960’s, and have been further investigated since.

Inhibitors of α-amylase stop the digestion of starch by inhibiting their breakdown into smaller, absorbable sugars*.  As a result, starches are passed undigested into the colon and therefore do not raise insulin levels*. 

These inhibitors are popular as weight loss supplements because of how long they have been around and how much research one particular brand has done on α-amylase inhibitors used for weight reduction*. 

As anyone on a ketogenic diet knows, starches are very high on the “should be avoided” list, which includes many vegetables, such as potatoes and corn, as well as beans and grains, such as white rice and processed wheat (flour). 

This list is pretty extensive and avoiding starchy food is probably one of the hardest parts of maintaining ketosis.  Also, because the carbohydrate calories are so dense, even small amounts of starchy foods can have major impacts on blood glucose and ketosis*. 

As a result, some “carb blocking” supplements are being advertised for use on ketosis “cheat days” to limit the impact of those meals on ketosis levels.  

However, starch management is only one aspect of enhancing ketosis and should not be considered THE ketosis supplement. The concept of blocking starch digestion to enhance ketosis is solid, but there are so many other ways in which ketosis can be broken that focusing solely on avoiding starch is unproductive.  

KetoGuardian™ and KetoSavior™ were specifically developed to enhance ketosis through all available avenues, not just one.  While inhibition of starch digestion is still an issue (ketogenic dieters encounter small amounts of starch despite trying to avoid it), it is only one of many.  As a result, phaseolin is only one of many ingredients.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This study found that White Bean Extract produces significant decreases in body weight and suggests decreases in fat mass while maintaining lean body mass.

A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

This is a review of clinical studies involving White Bean Extract and how it was capable of decreasing post-prandial blood glucose after starchy meals due to α-amylase inhibition.

A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

This was an early article dicussing the α-amylase properties of White Bean Extract and how it reduces starch digestion.

Partially Purified White Bean Amylase Inhibitor Reduces Starch Digestion In Vitro and Inactivates Intraduodenal Amylase in Humans

This is a very early article discussing phaseolin as an α-amylase inhibitor.

Purification and Properties of Phaseolamin, an Inhibitor of α-Amylase, from the Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

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α-lipoic acid

ALA is a well investigated supplement with well documented antioxidant activities*.  However, further research into diabetes and metabolic syndrome has shown additional activities that are relevant for enhancing ketosis. 

ALA, unlike most other AMPK activators, is a direct AMPK activator instead (current scientific thought is that it is activated via interactions with calcium transport)*. 

One final way that ALA enhances ketosis: decreased insulin secretion*.  ALA acts directly on the β cells that produce insulin in the pancreas, which causes them to decrease insulin production*.  

AMPK activation in liver which results in reduced glucose output from the liver, down-regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression and reduced hepatocyte glucose production*.

AMPK activation in skeletal muscle which results in increased glucose uptake into muscles and increases fatty acid oxidation while decreasing the formation of new fat*.

AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus which results in decreased appetite and helps leptin promote satiety*.

In short, ALA decreases circulating glucose and insulin, decreases fat buildup in tissues, burns fat for energy, and decreases appetite and food intake*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This was a human study that resulted in decreased BMI and abdominal circumference.

α-Lipoic Acid Supplementation: A Tool for Obesity Therapy?

This article discussed the properties of ALA, how it affects AMPK, increases energy expenditure, reduces plasma glucose, reduces circulating insulin and reduces leptin (acting as an appetite suppressant). Additionally, it inhibits AMPK activation in the hypothalamus, which also reduces appetite.

Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

Meta analysis of 10 articles which showed a significant short-term weight loss in humans.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: Results from a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Another meta-review showing ALA significantly decreased body weight and BMI.

Alpha-lipoic acid supplement in obesity treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

This article discusses how ALA activates AMPK in skeletal muscle, which resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accumulation in skeletal muscle.

a-Lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK in skeletal muscle

This article discusses how ALA down-regulates lipogenic enzymes, which inhibits lipogenesis (formation of fat) by activating AMPK.

a-Lipoic Acid Reduces Fatty Acid Esterification and Lipogenesis in Adipocytes from Overweight/Obese Subjects

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Magnolia Bark Extract

Magnolia officinalis has been used for millennia in Traditional Chinese Medicine.  The two main bioactives in Magnolia are honokiol and magnolol.  Both have similar properties, but honokiol has one major advantage over magnolol; honokiol is non-adipogenic. 

Honokiol is a PPARγ partial agonist, which has a well-established role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism*.  However, the PPARγ agonists currently used for carbohydrate control (diabetes management) have the unwanted side-effects of weight gain, primarily by adipogenesis, or new fat cell development*. 

This is where Honokiol really shines.  Not only does it decrease circulating blood glucose by increasing transport into the muscle cells for use, but it does so without storing fat*. This is important for enhancing ketosis by limiting the insulin response by decreasing blood glucose. 

PPARγ is also known to upregulate genes responsible for fatty acid oxidation (fat burning) while preventing the upregulation of lipogenic gene expression (new fat creation)*. 

Additionally, Honokiol activates AMPK through PPARγ, although it does so through a different mechanism than ALA does, allowing for a possibly additive effect*.

Another action of Honokiol is its anxiety lowering ability*.  This may have a significant impact on those that tend to eat when stressed.  Even those that don’t binge eat can benefit from decreasing diet related stressors and anxieties. 

Honokiol has been shown in studies to be effective against anxiety after a single dose, but due to its ability to upregulate, it becomes up to 100 times stronger after 7 days of usage*. 

Although KetoSavior™ was designed to be a pre-meal adjunct to enhancing ketosis, it becomes more effective over time if used consistently*. This is the case for all of the ingredients that affect gene regulation*.

Below are brief summaries of the research articles and links to each:

This article discusses the mechanism behind honokiol and how it improves insulin sensitivity.

Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of honokiol on type 2 diabetic mice

This article discusses honokiol as a partial PPARγ agonist. The most important aspect of this is that honokiol, unlike most PPARγ agonists, does not induce adipogenesis (fat formation). This resulted in decreased blood glucose and suppressed weight gain.

Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature

This is a review that summarizes the literature on Magnolia officinalis bark composition, utilization, pharmacology and safety.

Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents

This study focused on the long-term supplementation of Magnolia officinalis extract. They found increases in energy expenditure and adipose fatty acid oxidation (fat burning)and decreases in fatty acid synthase activity (new fat).

Long-term supplementation of honokiol and magnolol ameliorates body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and adipose inflammation in high-fat fed mice

This study is interesting from another standpoint. Honokiol has an anti-anxiety effect as well as glucose management. This is important for stress eaters.

Behavioural Pharmacological Characteristics of Honokiol, an Anxiolytic Agent Present in Extracts of Magnolia Bark, Evaluated by an Elevated Plus-maze Test in Mice

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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.